WOMEN IN TECHNICAL WORK

 

IN ATLANTIC CANADA


 

 

WOMEN IN TECHNICAL WORK IN ATLANTIC CANADA

 

 

a community research project funded by the Women's Program,

Status of Women Canada

 

 

March, 1998

 

 

Written by: Brenda Grzetic

 

Researchers:

Newfoundland and Labrador: Barbara Forbes and Brenda Grzetic

New Brunswick: Debra Lavric, Rose Horwood, Brenda Losier

Nova Scotia: Madeline Comeau and Kimberly Challis

Prince Edward Island: Doris McDonald

 

 

 

 

 

Printed by

 

WITT Newfoundland and Labrador

P.O. Box 23118

St. John's, NFLD

A1B 4J9

 

 

 

 

Acknowledgments

 

We would like to thank the large number of employers, government departments, organizations and women from Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and PEI who kindly participated in this research.

 

This research could not have been possible without the support and financial assistance of the Women's Program, Status of Women Canada and the invaluable network of women and men across this country who make up the WITT National Network - each and every one committed to the occupational integration of women.

 

Special thanks go to Helen Gosine of Human Resources Development Canada and Anne Marie Anonsen of Information By Design, St. John's, Nfld.

 

 

 


Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................

Employment Equity as a Framework.....................................................................

Methodology.....................................................................................................................

PART 1: QUANTITATIVE DATA.......................................................................................

Legislated Employment Equity Program (LEEP)..............................................

LEEP Data from Treasury Board........................................................................................

Women in Other Designated Groups...................................................................................

Women in Atlantic Canada vs. Women Nationally.............................................................

LEEP Data Collected Through Questionnaires..................................................................

Federal Contractors Program (FCP)...................................................................

Federal Infrastructure Program.........................................................................

Mega-Projects..................................................................................................................

The Hibernia Construction Project.....................................................................................

Confederation Bridge (PEI Strait Crossing).......................................................................

Education..........................................................................................................................

Womenís Participation in Trades and Technology Programs.............................................

Registered Apprentices and Journeyed Women...................................................................

Women In Engineering........................................................................................................

PART II: FOCUS GROUPS..................................................................................................

Focus Group Summary.................................................................................................

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS...............................................................

APPENDIX A: STANDARD OCCUPATIONAL CLASSIFICATION

UNIT GROUPS.............................................................................................

APPENDIX B: DATA COLLECTION FORMS..................................................................

APPENDIX C: FOCUS GROUP AGENDA.........................................................................

ENDNOTES: .....................................................................................................................54

 

 

 

Introduction

 

This report is the result of a community research project undertaken by four Atlantic groups of Women in Trades and Technology (WITT): WITT Newfoundland and Labrador, WITT Nova Scotia, NB WITT, and PEI WITT.[1]İ The research provides an overview of women's participation in employment and education programs focusing on technical occupations.İ For the purposes of this report ëtechnicalí refers to trades, technology, operations (TTO), engineering and technical supervisory occupations.

 

In conducting this research, we concentrated on the following employers:

 

®       Legislated employment equity employers (LEEP)

®       Federal Contractors (FCP)

®       Mega-projects

®       Infrastructure projects.

 

In studying the participation of women in these occupational areas, we are provided insight into:

 

®       the level of representation of women employed in technical occupations in Atlantic Canada;

®       the participation rate of women in training programs for work on mega projects;

®       the number of women enrolled in or graduating from community college technicalİ programs;

®       the number of women graduating from university engineering programs, and

®       women's experiences in accessing work or training in technical occupations.

 

Employment Equity as a Framework

 

A commitment to the occupational integration of women requires the removal of systemic and overt barriers found in training and employment systems and structures.Only through an integrated approach to employment equity can there be improvements in women's long-term attachment to the workforce and especially in occupations where they have been traditionally under-represented.İ The Employment Equity Act of 1986 was the first proactive attempt to encourage a systemic approach to this problem:

 

To achieve equality in the workplace so that no person shall be denied employment opportunities or benefits for reasons unrelated to ability and in the fulfilment of that goal, to correct the conditions of disadvantage in employment experienced by women, aboriginal peoples, persons with disabilities and persons who are, because of their race or colour, in a visible minority in Canada, by giving effect to the principle that employment equity means more than treating persons in the same way, but also requires special measures and the accommodation of differences.[2]

Human Resources Development Canada (HRDC) states that employment equity is an action-oriented approach that identifies under-representation or concentration of, and employment barriers to, women and other groups of people.The Act refers to this particular group of people (women, aboriginal people, persons with disabilities and visible minorities) as the four designated groups.[3]Employment equity programs provide a number of practical and creative remedies to proactively resolve workplace issues which adversely impact on womenís participation in the workforce.

 

The Women in Technical Work in Atlantic Canada research was conducted with an understanding that the purpose of employment equity is to remove the conditions or barriers which work against the integration of women. An employment equity program therefore, should work proactively to:

 

®       increase the numbers of women in occupational areas where they are currently under-represented;

 

®       reduce discriminatory barriers through action, policy and education.This includes elimination or modification of all human resources practices or systems which cannot be shown to be bona fide occupational requirements;

 

®       introduce special measures and the establishment of internal goals which work towards increased participation of women by increasing the recruitment, hiring, training and promotion of women;

 

®       make reasonable accommodation to enable women to compete with other workers on an equal basis, and

 

®       monitor the retention and promotion of women who are trained and/or working in occupational areas where they are under-represented in the workforce.

 

This requires employers to review their employment systems, policies and practices with respect to:

®       the recruitment, selection and hiring of employees;

®       the development and training of employees;

®       the promotion of employees;

®       the retention and termination of employees, and

®       the reasonable accommodation of the special needs of members of designated groups.

 

Despite employment equity legislation, the Federal Contractor's Program and other long-term government policies such as HRDCís Designated Groups Policy, barriers to occupational integration still exist and women's work remains segregated. These barriers include inappropriate training, discrimination in hiring, inappropriate work practices and environments, sexual harassment and/or the perception of a culture of harassment, and family responsibility problems. These factors may be countered, or reinforced, by the attitudes, approaches and actions of employers, educators, managers, supervisors, labour representatives, co-workers, family and friends.

 

This report will provide quantitative and qualitative data that can be used as a basis of analysis for the relative success of employment equity initiatives.Obviously there are a number of factors that would need to be explored to fully account for the segregated nature of womenís employment.However, it is of critical importance that trends in womenís participation in the workforce be documented as a first step in achieving greater gender equality.This report will be useful to:

 

®       federal and provincial governments interested in implementing gender-based analysis and integrated equity policies in their departments and agencies;

®       LEEP and FCP employers, and other employers interested in recruiting women into their technical workforce;

 

®       community colleges and universities who wish to increase the number of women into their technical courses and engineering programs, and

 

®       local WITT groups and other organizations advocating for the occupational integration of women by providing them with a tool that can be used to inform women of the importance of working together.

 

Methodology

 

Employment Data

 

Data collection involved analysis of the 1995 and 1996 annual reports submitted to Treasury Board, Ottawa.İ Research was confined to data on full-time permanent employees in the following employment equity occupational groups: middle management, professional, semi-professional, foremen/women, skilled crafts and semi-skilled manual occupational categories. (See Appendix A for a list of the Standard Occupational Classification Unit Groups covered under the employment equity occupational groups noted above).

 

Additional data specific to women's employment in technical occupations were gathered through the use of questionnaires sent to employers under the Federal Contractors Program and the Employment Equity Act, as well as employers who access large amounts of public funds for infrastructure or mega-projects. (See Appendix B for data collection forms).These data collection forms were developed in consultation with the researchers and members of the WITT locals throughout Atlantic Canada. Employers who came under LEEP and FCPprograms within the past two years were screened out because it takes at least two years to develop and implement an employment equity plan and realize any benefits to women.We also removed those LEEP and FCP employers who do not employ people in TTO and engineering occupations (i.e. the banking industry),

 

Data had been previously collected on the Hibernia construction project as a result of recent research completed by WITT Newfoundland and Labrador.[4] Assistance with current data collection was provided by the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. Data were collected on the Confederation Bridge (PEI Strait Crossing) from Strait Crossing Inc., HRDC, and labour unions.

 

At the onset of data collection, LEEP, FCP and infrastructure employers were assured that the names of employers would not be published in this report. With the exception of the two mega-projects (Hibernia and the Confederation Bridge) and Canada Post, every effort has been made to maintain employer confidentiality.

 

When data collection was complete, the data were entered into a database for further analysis and reporting.

 

Education Data

Data were collected on male and female graduates for a five-year period from public and private schools and universities throughout Atlantic Canada.The areas of study include trades (with the exception of hairdressing and cooking), two and three-year technology courses and engineering programs. Due to inconsistencies in the collection and retrieval of college data by provincial governments throughout the Atlantic provinces, five years of data was not available from some provinces. For Nova Scotia, enrollment figures are used since graduation data were not available from the Department of Education. In addition, the number of students enrolled or graduated from trades programs includes both pre-apprenticeship and advanced block programs.

 

Qualitative Data

Focus groups were held in two locations in each of the four Atlantic provinces. Their purpose was to document women's experiences seeking TTO and engineering work. It included asking women to suggest strategies for change in the workplace, educational institutions, and government and to gather information on the types of initiatives which would be helpful at the community level.İ The agenda for the focus groups was developed in consultation with the researchers in all four provinces. (See Appendix C for workshop agenda).

 

Participation in the focus groups was open to the general public. Meetings were advertised by women's centres, community colleges and community channel TV stations. In addition, members of WITT National Network who reside in the Atlantic Provinces were informed of the meetings by support staff in the WITT National Network office.

 

The facilitators of the focus groups took the opportunity to inform women about the WITT National Network and encouraged them to become actively involved in the various WITT locals throughout the Atlantic provinces. In this regard, women were asked to complete a questionnaire on what they needed most from WITT. The results of that questionnaire are available from the WITT locals and are separate from this report.

 

Employer Response

 

LEEP

The 1995 and 1996 employer reports submitted to Treasury Board were analyzed. Data were collected from 37 reports for 1995 and 35 reports for 1996. Then requests were made of LEEP employers ín human resource departments by project researchers. Data were collected only from employers who hire people in technical occupations, report from the Atlantic provinces, and have been required by legislation to implement employment equity for two years prior to this survey. Twenty-five employers were contacted throughout the Atlantic provinces and ten (40%) responded.

 

FCP

In Newfoundland and Labrador information was requested from 14 employers. Eight employers responded with the requested data, four of whom were unionized. Requests were made of 23 employers in Nova Scotia. Eighteen responded positively and eight of those were unionized. In New Brunswick 22 employers were contacted and responses were received from 14, five of whom were unionized. PEI does not have any FCP employers. The overall response rate of FCP employers was 68%.

 

Infrastructure

Most of the contractors who successfully bid on infrastructure projects responded to our questions over the phone rather than in writing. Although many of the contractors provided information with regard to female employees, they were not able to provide data on the number of males. This was due to the temporary nature of construction work.

 

 

part 1: quantitative data

Legislated Employment Equity Program (LEEP)

 

The Employment Equity Act applies to employers under federal jurisdiction and Crown corporations with 100 or more employees. Generally speaking, those employers operate primarily in the banking, transportation and communications industries. Section 4 of the Employment Equity Act sets out certain obligations for employers:

 

An employers shall, in consultation with such persons as have been designated by the employees to act as their representative or, where a bargaining agent represents the employees, in consultation with the bargaining agent, implement employment equity by:

(a) identifying and eliminating each of the employer's employment practices, not otherwise authorized by law, that results in employment barriers against persons in designated groups; and

(b) instituting such positive policies and practices and making such reasonable accommodation as will ensure that persons in designated groups achieve a degree of representation in the various positions of employment with the employer that is at least proportionate to their representation:

(i) in the work force; or

(ii) in those segments of the work force that are identifiable by qualifications, eligibility or geography and from which the employer may reasonably be expected to draw or promote employees.[5]

 

The Employment Equity Act also states that federally regulated employers are required to prepare an annual employment equity plan with goals and timetables, and to retain each plan and all records used to prepare their annual report at their principal place of business in Canada. The annual report must indicate the industrial sector, geographic location and employment status on the representation of designated group members by occupational group and salary range and to provide information on those hired, promoted and terminated. These reports are publicly available and are provided to the Canadian Human Rights Commission, which has the authority to initiate an investigation if it has reasonable grounds to believe that systemic discrimination is indicated by the data in the reports.[6]

 

LEEP Data from Treasury Board

In the LEEP annual reports, the occupational categories where the majority of technical occupations are found include middle managers, professionals, semi-professionals, foremen/women, skilled crafts and trades and semi-skilled manual workers. Tables #1 and #2 indicate the number and percentage of women and men in permanent full-time employment with LEEP employers in the Atlantic provinces during 1995 and 1996.

 

 

 

NB

NF

NS

PEI

 

OCCUPATIONAL GROUP

 

F

M

F

M

F

M

F

M

Total F

Total All

%Femaleof Total

Middle Managers

138

309

217

335

348

685

26

28

729

2086

35%

Professionals

38

105

36

123

76

218

8

13

158

617

26%

Semi-Professionals

46

214

32

210

110

652

6

25

194

1295

15%

Foremen/Women

16

224

0

41

8

374

3

20

27

686

4%

Skilled Trades

4

905

10

1320

32

1933

1

270

45

3937

1%

Semi-Skilled Manual Labour

7

737

1

345

41

1569

37

224

86

2961

3%

Total

249

2494

296

2374

615

5431

81

580

1241

12120

10%

Percentage of Females

9%

11%

10%

12%

İ10%

 

 

Table # 1 : 1995 LEEP Data from Treasury Board Annual Reports

 

 

 

NB

NF

NS

PEI

 

OCCUPATIONAL GROUP

 

F

M

F

M

F

M

F

M

Total F

Total All

%Femaleof Total

Middle Managers

183

340

214

301

313

588

29

37

739

2005

37%

Professionals

113

346

45

108

94

198

0

1

252

905

28%

Semi-Professionals

82

341

26

192

99

536

1

5

208

1282

16%

Foremen/Women

19

238

0

16

6

263

0

21

25

563

4%

Skilled Trades

18

1197

12

716

24

1637

2

278

56

3884

1%

Semi-Skilled Manual Labour

22

821

1

272

41

1793

53

278

117

3281

4%

Total

437

2462

298

1605

577

5015

85

620

1397

11099

13%

Percentage of Females

15%

16%

10%

12%

İ13%

 

 

Table #2 : 1996 LEEP Data from Treasury Board Annual Reports

 

The above figures show an increase from 1995 to 1996 in womenís representation in middle management, professional, semi-professional and semi-skilled manual work. There is a marginal increase in the number of women in the skilled trades group. Womenís employment increased overall by 3% in 1996 over 1995 figures. This was mainly due to a significant increase in the employment of women in New Brunswick in virtually every occupational group. The representation of women decreased in Nova Scotia while PEI and Newfoundland experienced very small increases.İ With the exception of PEI, the numbers of men decreased in 1996.

 

It should be noted that when Canada Post is removed from the data, the percentage of women in middle management decreases from 35% to 27% in 1995 and from 37% to 28% in 1996 and the overall percentage of women decreases from 10% to 7% in 1995 and from 13% to 10% in 1996.

 

In their annual reports, many LEEP employers took the opportunity to describe their efforts to increase opportunities for designated group members. The following indicates some of their approaches:

 

We focused on recruiting and a referral program since it would impact our workforce immediately. Human Resource recruiters focused their attention on advertising in non-traditional areas as well as building relationships with designated group agencies. ... Forging positive contacts with community organizations have had a direct result in placing designated group members in various areas of [our company].

 

Another LEEP employer wrote about the impact of the poor economy on their ability to hire at all. As the following report illustrates, they have implemented some initiatives that have been directed at women. However, they have not resulted in increased employment of women with the company.

 

We continue to provide financial assistance to employees interested in furthering their education. Approximately 20% of the women working for [the company] applied for and received funding from [the company] to pursue their educational goals. One female was successful in obtaining her BA which was partially funded by [the company] on a year-to-year basis; she was recently promoted to a position with Human Resources. [They] also have a continuing education program for its five Occupational Health nurses - all of whom are women. Furthermore, we provide educational bursaries to 21 women of high-school age to pursue a university education. We also sponsor a Junior Achievement Company (JA) which is made up of approximately 50% females.

 

Women in Other Designated Groups

 

Further analysis of the 1995 and 1996 LEEP reports for the four Atlantic provinces indicates the number of aboriginal women, women with disabilities and visible minority women in permanent full-time employment. Table #3 shows their total participation in the occupational groups used in the analysis above (middle managers, professionals, semi-professionals, forewomen, skilled crafts workers, and semi-skilled manual workers). The number of aboriginal women, women with disabilities and visible minority women in technical occupations increased in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia but the overall numbers remain low.

 

 

 

NB

NF

NS

PEI

Designated Group

1995

1996

1995

1996

1995

1996

1995

1996

Aboriginal Women

3

4

4

4

0

0

4

0

Women With Disabilities

7

9

9

4

5

9

1

0

Visible Minority Women

8

13

1

0

6

14

0

0

 

Table #3 : 1995 and 1996 LEEP Data for Other Designated Groups

Source: Treasury Board Annual Reports 1995 and 1996

 

 

Women in Atlantic Canada vs. Women Nationally

 

When women's employment with LEEP employers in Atlantic Canada is compared to women with LEEP employers nation wide, the figures show that the degree of under-representation is greater in Atlantic Canada. Compared to the rest of Canada, there are 10% less women in middle management positions, 14% less women in professional occupations, and 5% less women in semi-professional occupations. In Atlantic Canada there are 1.5% less women in forewomen positions, 2% less in skilled trades and 1.5% less in semi-skilled manual labour positions. The latter are occupations where women are under-represented nationwide. Figure #1 further illustrates this point.

 

 

Figure #1:İ Women in Atlantic Canada vs. Women Nationally

LEEP Data Collected Through Questionnaires

 

This research attempted to focus more specifically on the number of women employed in technical occupations by LEEP employers. As a result, the following data were collected from ten LEEP employers in the Atlantic provinces. The job categories included technical supervisors, engineers, technologists, skilled trades people and operators (i.e. heavy equipment, truck drivers). These categories encompass the majority of occupations which would generally be classified as TTO and engineering occupations.

 

Job Categories

NB

NF

NS

Total F

Total

% F

 

F

M

F

M

F

M

 

 

 

Technical Supervisor

1

25

2

8

3

144

6

183

3.3%

Engineering

1

48

0

1

0

25

1

75

1.3%

Technology

4

46

1

0

0

36

5

87

5.7%

Trades

3

335

1

2

0

368

4

709

0.6%

Operations

9

227

3

140

1

1151

13

1531

0.8%

Total

18

681

8

151

4

1724

28

2585

1.1%

Percentage Female

2.50%

 

5%

 

0.20%

 

 

 

 

 

Table #4: LEEP Data Collected Through Questionnaires: 1997

 

LEEP employers in New Brunswick employ the greatest number of women in most technical jobs although the percentage of females is greatest (5%) in Newfoundland. Even though most employment opportunities are found in the skilled trades areas, the representation of women remains extremely low - 1% in both the 1995 and 1996 annual reports and 0.6% in the above data collected through questionnaires. The overall percentage of women in TTO and engineering occupations was 1.1% for the 10 employers who responded, representing 40% of those surveyed.

 

Federal Contractors Program (FCP)

 

The Federal Contractors Program (FCP) was designed to ensure that organizations who do business with the Government of Canada achieve and maintain a representative workforce. FCP is actually a government policy which did not have legislative basis until the Employment Equity Act was revised in 1996. With the new legislation, Human Resources Development Canada have to ensure that the FCP requirements of employers with regard to implementation of employment equity, will be equivalent to those of employers under the Act. FCP applies to suppliers of goods and services to the federal government who have 100 or more employees and successfully bid on contracts of $200,000 or more. Exemptions include companies accessing government contracts related to the purchase or lease of real property and construction contracts regardless of size. All Canadian suppliers and foreign suppliers with a resident workforce in Canada are covered by this policy.

 

HRDC monitors the Federal Contractors Program and outlines the guidelines as follows:

  Organizations which bid on contracts are required to commit themselves to implementing employment equity and to certify this commitment as a condition of their bid.

The terms and conditions of this commitment require contractors to satisfactorily fulfill a number of program criteria. These include determining and analyzing the internal workforce; eliminating policies and practices that have an adverse impact on designated groups; identifying areas for change; establishing goals and timetables for the hiring and promotion of designated group members; and developing an action plan to achieve the stated goals.

Certified contractors will be subject to on-site compliance reviews by HRDC officials at any point after the award of a contract. Should a compliance review indicate a failure to respect the commitment to implement employment equity, sanctions may be applied, which could include the exclusion of the employer from future government business.[7]

 

The following data were collected in 1997 from FCP employers who have been under the program since 1994 (Prince Edward Island has no employers under the Federal Contractors Program). Table #5 and Figure #2 illustrate the participation rate of women who work as technical supervisors, engineers, technologists, trades and operations workers.İ Women are best represented (22%) in the technology category. Data indicate that most of this increase is due to the efforts of one employer in Newfoundland. Overall, women make up 10% of the TTO and engineering workforce with FCP employers. The representation of women in TTO and engineering occupations in unionized environments is lowest in Newfoundland (2%), 6% in New Brunswick and 11% in Nova Scotia.

 

Job Categories

NB

NF

NS

 

 

 

Non-union

Union

Non-union

Union

Non-union

Union

 

 

 

F

M

F

M

F

M

F

M

F

M

F

M

Total

% F

Technical Supervisor

17

21

0

22

5

29

5

17

15

159

0

7

297

14

Engineering

2

24

3

177

11

85

0

4

4

99

3

11

423

5

Technology

58

62

21

520

117

190

29

124

9

42

51

70

1293

22

Trades

9

253

42

1129

7

27

5

1152

1

95

21

1811

4552

2

Operations

15

84

75

455

21

107

3

577

118

281

218

592

2546

18

Total

101

444

141

2303

161

438

42

1874

147

676

293

2491

9111

10

Percentageİ Female

19%

6%

27%

2%

18%

11%

 

 

Table #5:İ Women vs. Men in TTO and Engineering with FCP Employers: 1997

 

Figure II:İ Female vs. Male Employees, FCP Employers, 1997

 

Federal Infrastructure Program

 

The Federal Infrastructure Program is a partnership program between federal, provincial and municipal governments for the purpose of upgrading/installing water and sewer systems, buildings and roads. The federal government contributes partial funds and the province and municipality contribute the remainder.

 

In Newfoundland and Labrador data were requested of 32 contractors. Responses received from 28 indicate that a total of five women were employed in TTO and engineering positions on projects valued at $5,031,629. Two companies reported hiring a total of seven women for flagging positions directing traffic around the construction site.

 

In Nova Scotia data were requested of seven contractors and responses received from four. On projects valued at $721,329, one woman was employed in technical work. Two companies reported that the only women hired were in temporary positions as flaggers.

 

In New Brunswick requests were made of 15 contractors and responses received from 14. A total of four women were employed in technical positions on projects totaling $12,445,000. One company reported hiring women for 'flagging' positions.

 

In PEI information was requested of 37 contractors and responses received from 11. On projects valued at $11,281,000, 16 women were employed in TTO and engineering positions. Eight companies reported hiring women for 'flagging' positions.

 

Mega-Projects

 

In the past five years, Atlantic Canadaís economy has benefited from the construction of two mega-projects: the Hibernia construction project at Mosquito Cove, Newfoundland and the Confederation Bridge (PEI Strait Crossing). Both projects had skill shortage training programs which were funded almost entirely by HRDC.

 

The Hibernia Construction Project

 

This section provides an overview of the Hibernia construction project as outlined in the 1996 WITT Newfoundland and Labrador report entitled "Women, Employment Equity and the Hibernia Construction Project."[8]

 

The development of the Hibernia offshore oilfield was one of the largest construction projects in Canadian history. It has required expenditures of over $5 billion and is of great significance to the economy of Canada and, in particular, Newfoundland. Work developing the Mosquito Cove construction site, 140 km west of St. John's, started in late 1990. This is the location of the construction of the massive concrete base of the production platform, one topsides module and various topsides assemblies. It is also the site of the assembly of the topsides and its mating with the base.

 

It was originally planned that the site would have a peak labour force of 3,600 workers; subsequent design and scheduling changes have meant that this has increased and by 1995, the anticipated total on-site employment was about 5000 workers. Other project work in Newfoundland has been focused in St. John's, with fabrication, engineering and administrative activity, while fabrication and engineering work has also taken place at Marystown on the Burin Peninsula, which has a major offshore fabrication yard. Smaller contracts (for instance, for the supply of aggregates and the workcamp accommodation units) have been awarded to companies operating in various other Newfoundland communities.

 

This project work was an attempt to ensure that Hibernia met Newfoundland and Canadian benefits commitments spelled out in the project development agreement. These required that Canada receive 55 to 60% of the estimated $5.2 billion pre-production expenditures, 65% of the $10.0 billion operating expenditures, 13,000 (70% of the total) person-years of construction employment, and 20,000 person-years of production employment.İ Much of this work has occurred in Newfoundland, which was guaranteed employment on the base, topside module, topside assemblies and other construction activity to a total of 10,000 person-years, as well as much of the production employment.

 

These commitments by the Hibernia consortium (incorporated in 1990 as the Hibernia Management and Development Company (HMDC)) were made in exchange for major financial support by the federal government. It committed to pay 25% of the construction costs to a total of $1.04 billion and provide loan guarantees for 40% of these costs to a maximum of $1.66 billion. The main motivation of the government in agreeing to these terms was spelled out by the senior federal representative at the 1990 signing ceremony: 'the significant financial commitment by the federal government to make Hibernia happen is a clear demonstration of our determination to overcome regional disparities in Atlantic Canada.' [9] He continued to say that Hibernia is a major regional development and employment project, and an important step in developing an offshore oil industry, rather than the major generator of resource revenues once anticipated.

 

At the start-up of the Hibernia construction project, $18 million was allocated for unionized skill-shortage training by HRDC. The provincial government provided additional funds. As of May, 1995, most of the training had been completed and the following data outline the participation rates of women and men.

 

As of May, 1995, HRDC funded 3,127 seats for Hibernia-related training;

 

- 2,361 men, representing 96% of training participants, accessed 2,960 seats in programs;

 

- 102 women, representing 4% of participants, accessed 167 seats; and

 

-1909 trainees had subsequently gained employment at the site; 1,844 (97%) were men and 65 (3%) were women.[10]

 

At its peak, about 200 women worked on the Hibernia Construction site, mainly in clerk and camp attendant positions. Forty women worked in trades, technology and engineering positions. As of May, 1996, women represented 4% of the total workforce.

 

Statistics from the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador outline womenís representation in technical jobs in the current production phase of the Hibernia project:

 

- 18 women (4%) and 350 men working offshore, and

 

- 64 women (12%) and 238 men onshore.

 

Some of the positions held by women include fluids lab technician, logging engineer, well completions engineering team leader, technical document specialist and process, pipeline, QA, planning engineer.

 

İConfederation Bridge (PEI Strait Crossing)

 

Construction on the Confederation Bridge began in 1993. Described by project officials as the 'largest public/private partnering in Canada,' it was entirely designed, financed and built by the private sector - Strait Crossing Inc. (SCI). It is to be maintained and operated by SCI for 35 years according to the development agreement with Public Works Canada.

 

Although SCI will not release the total cost of constructing the bridge, it is valued at $840 million.İ SCI is guaranteed $41.9 million (1992 dollars indexed at inflation over 35 years) for 35 years from the Federal government. The federal government also contributed $5 million each to PEI and New Brunswick to take care of stress on the highways due to the construction of the bridge. HRDC provided funds for training some of the workers on the project and continues to provide training for displaced ferry workers. ACOA has made funds available to employers and new businesses to open in the Borden-Carlton area of PEI. This community consists mainly of displaced workers from Marine Atlantic.

 

Workers were referred to work on the project by the respective construction trade union. The total workforce was 2500, 250 of whom were women working in a variety of occupational areas although the majority worked in flagging and maintenance (cleaning/janitorial) positions.

 

Training was provided in skill shortage and project specific areas. Candidates for training were selected by the five construction trade unions. During 1994-96, the total training expenditure by HRDC was $1, 356,751. These costs breakdown into two categories: course costs ($857,081) and income support ($499,670). There were 784 men and 38 women (4.6%) who received training for the project. Women were trained in post-tensioning and rebar work, and 36 of them completed the training.İ Of the women trained, one was native and one was disabled.

 

The majority of women who were trained to work on the Strait Crossing in rebar and post tension work were hired in construction maintenance positions instead. Most of them worked as flaggers and maintenance workers on the support ferries. Four women worked as security guards, 2 as bus drivers, 1 in post tensioning, 2 in rebar, and 1 in concrete work. One woman civil engineer worked on the project.


Education

 

Our purpose in collecting data from colleges and universities was to document the number of women in TTO and engineering programs and to look for patterns or trends in their participation over time. As is noted in the methodology section, a variety of approaches were utilized by the four provinces to collect and retrieve statistical data on the numbers of students in their college systems. As a result, some inconsistencies arose from province to province in the number of years in which data were available.

 

Womenís Participation in Trades and Technology Programs

 

PEI

 

The following table illustrates the number of women and men graduates in trades and technology courses in the public college system in PEI. The number of women in technology programs has decreased while the number of men has increased. In 1993, women were 22% of technology graduates and in 1997 they were 14%. There has been no substantial increase in the number of women in trades programs; over the past five years the number has remained consistently very low. In 1993, women were 1.8% of the graduates from trades programs and in 1997, they were 4%.

 

 

PEI Graduates

1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

Technology:

 

 

 

 

 

İİ Females

55

44

62

70

73

İİ Males

325

234

266

234

254

İİ % Female

14.5%

15.8%

18.9%

23%

22.3%

Trades*:

 

 

 

 

 

İİ Females

13

11

7

10

11

İİ Males

307

284

383

462

583

İİ % Female

4%

3.7%

1.8%

2.1%

1.8%

 

Table #6: PEI Public College Data: Graduates of Trades and Technology Programs

 

* Trades programs throughout this entire section do not include numbers of women and men in hairdressing and cooking programs.

 

 

Figure 3: Female Graduates: Public Colleges - PEI

 

Nova Scotia

 

The following table illustrates the number of women and men enrolled in trades and technology courses in the public college system in Nova Scotia. Overall, the number of students in technology programs over the past three years is increasing. However the percentage of women has decreased from 28% in 1995 to 25% in 1997. In 1995, women were 4% of the enrolled students in trades programs and in 1997, they made up 5.4%.

 

NS Graduates

1997

1996

1995

Technology:

 

 

 

Females

258

249

199

Males

774

664

501

% Female

25%

27%

28%

Trades:

 

 

 

Females

75

65

60

Males

1295

1264

1443

% Female

5.5%

4.9%

4%

 

Table # 7: Nova Scotia Public College Enrollment of Women and Men in Trades and Technology Programs

 

 

 

 

Figure 4: % Female Enrollment; Public Colleges - Nova Scotia

 

New Brunswick

 

Table #8 shows the numbers of women and men who graduated from trades and technology programs from 1992 to 1996. While neither trades nor technology programs are showing a significant increase in the numbers of women, the numbers in trades programs are alarmingly low.

 

NBİ Graduates

1996

1995

1994

1993

1992

Technology

 

 

 

 

 

Female

102

76

71

85

50

Male

408

397

386

339

n/a

% Female

20%

16%

15.5%

20%

 

Trades

 

 

 

 

 

Female

11

5

9

6

10

Male

416

417

403

389

n/a

% Female

2.5%

1.1%

2.1%

1.5%

 

 

Table #8:New Brunswick Public College Data on Female and Male Graduatesin Trades and Technology Programs

 

 

 

 

Figure 5: Female Graduates; Public Colleges - New Brunswick

 

 

Newfoundland and Labrador

 

The following table illustrates the number of women and men in trades and technology courses in the public and private college system in Newfoundland and Labrador. The number of women who graduated from technology programs increased slightly, up from 8.2% in 1992 to 13.4% in 1995. There has been only a minimal increase in the number of women graduating from trades programs: up from 1.1% in 1992 to 2.8% in 1995.

 

NFLD Graduates

1995

1994

1993

1992

Technology:

 

 

 

 

Female

82

24

30

31

Male

528

298

518

346

% Female

13.4%

7.4%

5.4%

8.2%

Trades:

 

 

 

 

Female

42

38

33

21

Male

1424

1404

1585

1877

% Female

2.8%

2.6%

2%

1.1%

 

Table #9: Newfoundland and Labrador Public and Private College Data on Female and Male Graduates from Trades and Technology Programs

 

 

 

Figure 6: Female Graduates; Public and Private Colleges - NF & Labrador

 

In addition to the data outlined above on students who graduated from trades and technology programs, data were also available on the numbers of women and men enrolled in trades and technology programs for 1996. Twelve women (1.2%) and 1000 men enrolled in trades programs and 113 women (11.5%) and 866 men enrolled in technology programs. These figures should be compared to 1995 when 13.4% women graduated from technology courses.

 

Registered Apprentices and Journeyed Women

 

Table #10 illustrates the number of current apprentices and journeyed women and men in Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and PEI. PEI have no journeywomen or female apprentices registered in the province. While New Brunswick has 84 registered journeywomen, they only have 15 women registered apprentices.

 


NB

NF

NS

PEI

Apprentices

 

 

 

 

Female

15

23

31

0

Male

2702

2174

(not avail.)

268

Total

2717

2197

 

268

Percentage

0.5%

0.15%

 

0%

Journeyed

 

 

 

 

Female

84

29

33

0

Male

37,560

19340

(not avail)

3858

Total

37644

19369

 

3858

Percentage

0.2%

0.15%

 

0%

Table 10: Registered Apprentices and Journeyed Women and Men: 1997

Women In Engineering

 

Data were collected from universities on the representation of women and men who graduated from engineering programs throughout the Atlantic provinces. Table #11 below indicates that since 1994 the number of women graduating from three-year engineering programs decreased in PEI. [It should be noted that PEI students enroll for the first three years of their engineering degree at the University of PEI in Charlottetown. To complete their degree they must go to another university, usually in Nova Scotia]. In Newfoundland the number of women graduating as engineers has remained consistently low. The data show that the percentage of women graduating from engineering school at Memorial University in 1997 is the lowest since prior to 1992. New Brunswick shows a significant increase in 1996 and 1997. Nova Scotia figures (which include the students graduating from PEI) show an overall increase in the number of women engineers over the past five years.

 

While the number of women engineers is higher than tradeswomen and technologists, it is still far from the numbers required (33%) for engineering to become classified as fairly representative of women.

 


1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

1992

NB

 

 

 

 

 

 

Female

42

42

33

34

22

25

Male

178

147

221

197

203

169

Percentage

19.0%

22.2%

13.0%

14.7%

9.7%

12.9%

NF

 

 

 

 

 

 

Female

16

26

25

17

17

16

Male

102

99

112

104

101

88

Percentage

13.5%

21.0%

18.0%

14.0%

14.4%

15.4%

NS

 

 

 

 

 

 

Female

60

42

40

25

44

26

Male

184

154

201

n/a

169

140

Percentage

24.6%

21.4%

16.6%

 

20.6%

15.6%

PEI

 

 

 

 

 

 

Female

15

18

19

32

29

4

Male

58

54

73

97

106

9

Percentage

20.5%

25.0%

20.6%

24.8%

21.5%

30.8%

 

Table 11: Women and Men Engineering Graduates: 1992 - 1997

Nova Scotia figures include students from PEI who completed their engineering degree.

 

 

 

Part ii: FOCUS GROUPS

 

Focus groups were held in two locations in each of the four Atlantic provinces. Their purpose was to document women's experiences seeking TTO and engineering work and education. Women were asked to suggest strategies for change in the workplace, educational institutions, and government, and to provide information on the types of initiatives which would be helpful in their communities. A total of 45 women participated; many of them were tradeswomen and technologists. Three main questions were used to guide the discussion and the responses are summarized below.

 

Focus Group Summary

 

Question #1: Describe your experience in trying to access work in TTO and engineering occupations?

 

Once women were able to find employment, they enjoyed the work immensely and were excited about the scope of the jobs, opportunities to learn new skills, and the satisfying rates of pay in TTO and engineering occupations.. However, many of the women's experiences tended to take a similar route throughout the Atlantic provinces - they completed their training but had difficulty getting work. Accessing employment opportunities with FCP and LEEP employers and contractors on mega and infrastructure projects was problematic.

 

"There may be company or government policies in place to prevent discrimination and harassment, but there is no commitment in place to enforce them." (Worker, Nova Scotia)

 

Tradeswomen spoke of difficulties gaining enough work experience to complete requirements for journey level certification.

 

they looked at me funny and one man asked if I could do shingling on a roof, laughed and said it was a man's work. I'll probably go to B.C. ... [there are] better opportunities there. (Tradeswoman, NFLD and Labrador)

 

In addition to the difficulty of obtaining work, when they were able to land a job, women found little support available from either their current employer or their union. Women hired by LEEP and FCP employers talked about having to deal with the added stress of people assuming they were hired to fill quotas.

 

Family responsibilities continue to place restrictions on women who have young children or eldercare responsibilities.

 

Jobs requiring evening/weekend work and extensive travel are not an option for female engineers with families. These types of jobs include the construction and consulting sectors. This limits me to careers in engineering related to educational institutions, business, etc. (Engineer, NFLD and Labrador)

 

Question #2: What do you think are the main barriers that women face in accessing equitable levels of trades, technology, operations or engineering occupations?

 

The barriers outlined by women included stereotyping; harassment; lack of career information; lack of acceptance, recognition and support; systemic discrimination, and lack of jobs.

 

1. Stereotyping involves sweeping generalizations based upon myths and usually inaccurate perceptions which have a limiting effect on opportunities for women. Women talked about some of these false assumptions and standards which are often applied to all women about their place in the workforce. Discouragement, either subtly or outright by employment and guidance counselors from entering certain trades and technical occupations, is still a reality for women and was noted by women in some of the focus groups.

 

Even when women showed an interest in trades and technical occupations, further restrictions were placed on them because some areas within trades and technology were considered more suitable for women than others. These attitudes made accessing some (especially) trades areas more difficult. One example given was that electrical trades are considered to be 'cleaner work' than plumbing and therefore more appropriate for women. Similarly, carpentry is considered more suitable than mechanics.

 

Women also talked about how they view men's reaction to women who work or study in TTO and engineering occupations. They felt that men are threatened in situations where there are more than two women on a given worksite: "women are easier to handle in small groups and therefore less likely to gang up on men." Conversely, women experience more problems when working in technical occupations where they are under-represented (less than 33% of the workforce).

 

 


 

Employers are timid about hiring women ... they think they will have a lot of problems bringing women on staff. For example, she will complain about the facilities, the language and have someone up on sexual harassment charges or maybe she'll have an affair ... (Worker, New Brunswick)

 

Women talked about the serious communications gap between men and women - men's false perceptions and attitudes have serious implications on women's employment opportunities. They noted that many men still perceive that the primary breadwinner is male - in spite of human rights codes against discrimination, employment equity legislation and public awareness of the rising numbers of female-led families. Women also said that men believe there are more men than women unemployed and therefore the priorities of government and employers stay on programs that benefit males. One woman in NFLD noted that "opportunities are not provided to women ... men still feel that women are taking jobs away from them."

 

2. Sexual and gender harassment were problems for women working or training in TTO and engineering occupations. The most common form of harassment reported was negative, disparaging remarks against women and their job performance. They also talked about inappropriate comments during job interviews such as comments specifically related to sex.İ In contrast, they felt that men were given automatic acceptance and welcomed into the network of male workers in many of these occupational areas. One woman reported being asked that during a job interview to explain how she would handle supervising a large group of males. She felt that males would never be asked that type of question.

 

Resentment from younger males and women in non-technical occupations such as clerical staff was considered by women as contributing to a culture of harassment. Some of the most damaging comments came from other women and/or wives of male co-workers who implied that women working in TTO or engineering must be abnormal somehow or have other motivations for working in their chosen occupation.

 

The 'System' itself was considered by many women as a major barrier, Women felt they were worse off if they complained about harassment and discriminatory actions. They said there was often nowhere to turn when experiencing difficulties in the workplace. One woman who sought help regarding a complaint about discrimination found no support from women's organizations or the Women's Directorate: "Itís too difficult to live through after a complaint ... your life becomes unbearable."

 

3. Gaining acceptance, respect and recognition for a job well done seems to allude women.İ Given the low numbers of women in TTO and engineering, women feel the constant pressure and stress of working in isolation from other women, breaking new ground, and working much harder than their male counterparts to gain acceptance. One woman noted that "ìwomen expend a lot of energy trying to win approval ... always trying to prove themselves.İ This leaves them second guessing their own abilities." their male co-workers and noted that for women, "performance doesn't lead to promotions." Women are much less likely to be promoted into technical management positions, even though in some cases they have the best education, experience and would be great for the job.

 

When I got a call and was offered the job, I couldn't turn it down. The money was very good and the company offered chances for career education. However, after eight years and lots of courses and more certification, it was evident that hell would freeze over before a woman was promoted to a shop floor supervisory position. (Technologist, New Brunswick)

 

5. Lack of support and willingness to accommodate women's needs in training and/or formally in the workplace was identified as a main concern of women in the focus groups. The greatest need was for financial help with retraining. They also explained that women were not often given primary consideration for education and retraining in the Atlantic provinces: if anyone in a family will get retraining, it will most likely be a male.

 

Some women spoke positively about accessing training programs and in some cases, companies who have developed professional training programs for women.

 

Where I last worked there was lots of training. It wasn't always easy to get into, because of the numbers of people that wanted it.İ But persistence in applying for all kinds of training worked well. This company also had a professional development module course for women that was one year in duration. It was aİ great course; wish I had a chance to do it years ago. I might not have made the mistakes I made. (Worker, New Brunswick)

 

However, women also spoke of companies not making provisions or having policies such as daycare and flexible time to accommodate working mothers. One woman explained that even when a written policy was in place to accommodate married couples working shift work, the company and union did not work together to enforce it.


I asked for shifts similar to my husband's but they wouldn't do it.İIt makes family life difficult. I work on days when my husband is off. The collective agreement says that if they can they will try to accommodate husband/wife teams ... still a lot of older people in management who feel that if you want two salaries then you put up with it. (Tradeswoman, NFLD and Labrador)

 

6.İ Lack of information about a variety of issues related to work indicated that women are out of the information loop regarding the nature of technical work, employment and training opportunities, unions, the apprenticeship system, etc. Women spoke about the need for more available information and broader outreach to include women.

 

Women are not aware of the opportunities out there in the industry. They need to be made aware of the opportunities, if for no other reason, that many of these jobs have better rates of pay. (worker, New Brunswick)

 

7.İ Women throughout the Atlantic provinces were aware of the lack of jobs but noted that when there were opportunities for work in their communities, men were given priority. They outlined the exclusion of women as an institutional and attitudinal barrier which could only be overcome with large scale initiatives.

 

Question #3: What are some of the positive steps that need to be taken to ensure more equitable levels of employment for qualified women in TTO and engineering?

 

Women spoke about the need for more general awareness and sharing of information about all the kinds of work women could and should be doing.

 

an awareness campaign, directed at the public - this might reach more women. It should explain the benefits of work in TTO and engineering and let employers know that they have to consider women as the good employees they can be. (Worker, New Brunswick)

 

They talked about the need for more financial and emotional support for families, particularly single mothers, to enable them to engage in training and/or pursue viable employment opportunities. Women should have access to financial assistance to train in occupational areas where they are under-represented. Similarly, women also talked about the lack of flexibility in some colleges and workplaces. They felt a necessity for flexibility in work schedules to assist both women and men with all types of family and extended family responsibilities.

 

Participants in the focus groups also spoke about women supporting women. They commented on the need for education for women as well as men so that we all can become more sensitive towards the issues of working women. Women in TTO and engineering look to other women (in non-technical occupations) to be more supportive of their decisions.İ Women must become more tolerant as women, to try to understand and respect the experiences of women of colour, aboriginal women, women with disabilities, lesbian women and white women.

 

Women need more creative approaches to provide work experience opportunities for women who already have skills and training. Universities, community colleges, Human Resources Development Canada (HRDC), and the provincial department of Social Services are all stakeholders who should develop new strategies to provide this work experience In Newfoundland, women talked about the need for a program where employers could provide on-the job training to obtain some of the hours required for journey level certification. They felt that the time for training was when the economy was slow. One woman provided a positive example of her experience entering into a technical occupation with the coordinated assistance of HRDC, the employer and union:

 

I got into this field because the Canada Employment Centre (now HRDC) was looking for women to do connectorization and women were thought to be good at this type of work. I thought it would be a good job and it was. The money was good. I automatically became part of the union. Once the connectorization job was done, there wasn't any more work ... so I asked to go into the electrical apprenticeship program and was able to because there were openings. Because we were in the union the wages were the same. (Worker, New Brunswick)

 

Women from Prince Edward Island spoke of the need for trades orientation courses for women such as the WITT exploratory courses. These courses help raise women's self esteem, technical knowledge and exposure to occupations where women are under-represented. Similarly, women felt that educational workshops should be offered to men and women in colleges, universities and the workplace regarding human rights, anti-discrimination, anti-harassment and gender sensitivity programs.

 

Women from all four provinces agreed that the federal employment equity legislation needs to be enforced more effectively by the Canadian Human Right Commission. They should reprimand companies when there is clear evidence that they are not living up to their obligations.

 

The government should be more proactive in assisting women to actually get jobs. They say they want things to change but without the government saying 'You've got to hire women', it isn't going to happen. (Worker, New Brunswick)


 

Conclusions AND RECOMMENDATIONS

 

CONCLUSIONS

 

The findings of this research show that occupational segregation continues to be a major workforce issue for women in Atlantic Canada. Employers who are legislated to implement employment equity show only modest increases in the number of women in their technical workforce. The same is true for contractors and unions with infrastructure and mega-projects throughout the Atlantic provinces. This research shows that women are not part of the primary workforce (hence, women as flaggers and maintenance workers) and major public-funded projects are not providing significant employment or training opportunities for women.

 

LEEP

Data from LEEP reports indicate that women are experiencing slightly higher levels of employment in the middle management and professional job categories. With the exception of New Brunswick, there is no significant improvement in the number of women in semi-professional, forewomen, skilled trades and semi-skilled worker categories with LEEP employers in Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and Labrador and PEI.

 

Results from our survey of LEEP employers indicate extremely low numbers of women as technical supervisors, engineers, technologists, trades and operations workers and the low numbers are not improving significantly. The representation of women in technical supervisory occupations is 3.3% and 0.8 % in skilled trades. It is important to note that the majority of employment opportunities available with LEEP and FCP employers surveyed are found in skilled trades and operations job categories, areas where women (at approximately 0.8% of the workforce) are still being excluded. The number of women engineers, technical supervisors and technologists is extremely low and questionable when one sees the availability of qualified women in the college and university graduate data throughout Atlantic Canada.

 

FCP

Women in Atlantic Canada are doing somewhat better with employers under the Federal Contractors Program than with LEEP: (it would be worthwhile to determine what factors account for the more promising results). Of the employers surveyed, figures showed that women made up 10% of their technical workforce. The highest number of women was in the technology category and the lowest number was in skilled trades.

 

Women in Other Designated Groups

This research shows that the representation of women from other designated groups is extremely low in technical job categories. Further analysis is required to determine why federal employment equity legislation is not working for these groups.

 

The 1997 Employment Equity Act Annual Report released by Treasury Board, Ottawa outlines some of the highlights from the compilation of annual report data for 1996. It states that in 1996, "the representation of persons with disabilities in the workforce decreased ... across all job sectors and for full-time and part-time work". It goes on to state that opportunities for new hirings and promotions increased with LEEP employers in 1996. Yet the employers data indicate that:

 

the number of positions filled by Aboriginal peoples and persons with disabilities decreased in 1996, and this figure stayed almost the same for members of visible minorities. For these three groups, a significant decrease in the number of hirings of members of the groups was observed in that year.[11]

 

Given that there are 37,785 aboriginal people living in Atlantic Canada,[12] the representation of aboriginal women with LEEP employers should be higher than that found in the 1995 and 1996 LEEP reports (see Table #3). The situation may change somewhat when the revised Employment Equity legislation comes into effect in 1998 requiring the Canadian Human Rights Commission to audit companies on the effectiveness of their employment equity programs.

 

Women with Infrastructure and Mega-Projects

The low numbers of women who received training for work on large projects, combined with the noted barriers to employment (see the above sections on the Confederation Bridge and the Focus Group Report) resulted in very low numbers of women in technical occupations. ACOA, Ottawa and the provinces are responsible for the inadequate policies regarding Infrastructure projects. HRDC and the provincial governments of PEI and Newfoundland are responsible for policy with the two mega-projects. This research proves that if project policies and agreements to construct mega-projects do not allow for a gender-based analysis and allocate training and employment opportunities for women, employers alone in the (generally) construction and oil and gas industry will not ensure a place for women. Governments must recognize that when they sign agreements for these projects without ensuring training and employment guarantees for women, they are perpetuating the discriminatory practices that have historically kept women relegated to a few low paying low status occupations - and womenís disadvantaged position in society. There is a link between governmentís role in ensuring women-friendly employment policies and the number of women in community college technical programs. If women cannot see that they as a group are welcome into these occupational areas, their numbers in community college and university engineering programs will always remain low.

 

Health and Safety Concerns

Given the pressures outlined by women in the focus groups and women's need to work, employers and unions must be aware that women who work in isolation (as women in TTO and engineering often do) are sometimes not able to speak out alone about issues affecting them in the workplace. Employers must be careful about how they are integrating women into TTO and engineering worksites especially when there is a tendency to treat women the same as men, regardless of the sometimes negative implications for women. Occasionally workspaces require redesign, albeit generally moderate in scale, to accommodate women into male-dominated jobs. Without appropriate workplace support for women workers, issues such as well-fitting safety clothing, appropriate health insurance policies, and easing into certain types of work are sometimes ignored. If employers and unions do not recognize and accommodate the needs of women workers, the result can be womenís increased vulnerability to both long and short-term injuries and the continuation of their low visibility in TTO and engineering occupations.

 

 


RECOMMENDATIONS

 

Establishing goals to increase the representation of women in technical occupations is a critical part of any employment equity plan. It is generally recognized that in order for occupations to stabilize for women, there must be a critical mass of at least 33%.İ This can only happen when employers adopt and implement women-friendly policies and programs, conduct information outreach and recruitment, and undertake a review of their employment systems. This research shows that employers in Atlantic Canada are having difficulties accomplishing their goals to increase the representation of women in technical occupations. We therefore make the following recommendations:

 

1.        A public education process is desperately required to address employers' concerns regarding the implementation of employment equity initiatives. One way to begin could be with a forum to hear from companies in Atlantic Canada who have been successful in increasing the numbers of women in technical occupationsİ It could also be used to bring together other people who have expertise in this area to share ideas from across the country and develop a list of best practices. Status of Women Canada, HRDC, ACOA, the provincial governments, industry and unions should work together on such an initiative but given its responsibilities under the Act, HRDC should be the catalyst.

 

2.        Employers must revisit their policies to ensure they do not unfairly exclude women from technical jobs within their companies. Special attention is needed to recruit aboriginal women, visible minority women and women with disabilities. Employers must ensure that any negative effects to women working in technical occupations are minimized or eliminated. This may require establishing a committee and seeking outside assistance from community organizations.

 

3.        The provincial governments in the Atlantic provinces must become much more proactive in developing policy which requires contractors and unions to develop their workforce so that it is representative of women across all occupational categories.It is important that government take a partnership role with employers in supporting goals to increase employment opportunities for women.

 

4.        The Federal Government, through HRDC and the Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency, must become much more proactive in ensuring that women are provided opportunities to work on projects utilizing large amounts of government funds. It is not enough to include one small clause in (infrastructure) contracts stating that contractors will abide by the Human Rights Code in its dealings with people. HRDC and ACOA must outline the employment equity obligations and accountability of employers who access large amounts of public funds. Then they must enforce it.

 

5.        Gender-based analysis must be incorporated into planning and negotiations for all large resource-sector projects.

 

6.        HRDC and the provincial governments must outline the employment equity obligations and accountability of employers who develop the natural resources of our provinces. It is critical that women benefit from natural resource developments and that employment equity policies be an integral part of project policy and not add-ons.

 

7.        The federal government, through HRDC and the Canadian Human Rights Commission must become more involved with problem solving when dealing with FCP and LEEP employers. As this research shows, there clearly are problems with implementation, and the federal government must provide ways to work with employers to address the problems.

 

8.        The Canadian Human Rights Commission needs to be more vigilant about auditing LEEP employers.

 

9.        HRDC needs to do much more to improve the effectiveness and accountability of employers under the Federal Contractors Program.İ Employers who do not comply must be removed from lists for future bidding of contracts.

 

10.     HRDC needs to allocate more resources to its regional offices to enhance their ability to more effectively carry out their responsibilities as defined in the Employment Equity Act.

 

11.     Both federal and provincial government departments, educational institutions, industry, and unions must improve on the ways information on technical training and employment is communicated to women. In the focus groups, women from all four provinces stated again and again that women are outside the information loop.

 

12.     Given the low numbers of women in especially the trades programs, more resources must be dedicated on a variety of levels to increasing the education of women. Special marketing initiatives are necessary to address womenís under-representation in technical and engineering programs. Such initiatives should establish goals to increase women's long-term visibility in TTO and engineering occupations.

 

13.     It is critical that industry, unions and educational institutions work together to improve recruitment and retention rates of women. There must be long-term planning that includes policy development, as well as strategies to address attitudinal, financial, and other barriers documented in this report.

 

14.     Professional development courses aimed at improving the ability of women and men to communicate more effectively are necessary to combat negativity about achieving more gender-integrated workplaces.

 

15.     Gender sensitivity training is needed for all stakeholders in order to counter stereotypes that affect womenís career choices and that impact on recruitment and retention rates of women in the workforce. These courses should also address the isolation often experienced by women in male dominated occupations.

 

16.     The federal and provincial government must recognize that changes to the Employment Insurance legislation has created additional barriers for women who want to upgrade their education, particularly for single mothers and women on social assistance. Programs should be reinstated and in some cases redesigned to guarantee these women equitable access to training that will enable them to become economically self-sufficient. These programs should include:

 

- Orientation to Trades and Technology courses[13] for women;

- financial assistance for women to train in technical areas;

- access to support staff while enrolled in training;

- provisions for daycare;

- provisions for paid work experience opportunities for women who have completed their training, and

- mandatory gender-sensitivity workshops for staff, employers, and unions involved in the training and work terms. These workshops should include information on Human Rights issues in employment and on workplace harassment.

 

17.     For all employment projects utilizing public funds, a requirement to establish employment equity goals to ensure equitable participation of women should be written into all agreements. This will require the cooperation of both federal and provincial governments as many initiatives are cost-shared. More specifically, funding should be conditional upon:

 

- incorporating employment equity principles into recruitment and selection, training, career development and promotions, terminations and lay-offs, and

- providing a harassment policy and education programs to eliminate harassment in the workplace.

 

The above conditions will help to ensure that men and women have equal opportunity to benefit equitably from employment generated with the assistance of public funds.

 


Unions should be encouraged to :

- include collective bargaining language on employment equity (including policies to address sexual and gender harassment) in collective agreements, and

- reform seniority structures to remove barriers for equity groups.

 

18.     Government should seriously commit itself to an internal process of gender-based analysis in all its policy making and program development. In addition, education programs for government personnel would help them to better recognize and acknowledge the barriers that women (and other designated groups) encounter in trying to access training and work in occupations where they have been previously excluded.

 

19.     Treasury Board needs to immediately complete an analysis and public reporting of the effectiveness of LEEP and FCP for women across all job categories. The benefit to women across all designated groups needs to be closely analyzed and include rates of pay and work status such as permanent, part-time or temporary. (This research did not include analysis of part-time and temporary workers as they tended to be women in non-technical occupations such as clerical and sales positions.)

 

20.     The numbers of employers under LEEP has been decreasing ever since its implementation in 1986.İ The government should study ways to broaden the coverage of the legislation for both LEEP and FCP employers. Given the findings of this research, we recommend that all future construction projects be immediately brought under the Federal Contractors Program.

 

 

 

 


 

 

APPENDIX A: STANDARD OCCUPATIONAL classification

unit groups[14]

 

 

 

Middle and Other Managers

 

Post Office Management

Inspectors and Regulatory Officers, Government

Officials and Administrators unique to Government

Natural Sciences and Engineering

Social Sciences and related fields

Administrators in Teaching and related fields

Administrators in Medicine and Health

Financial Management

Personnel and Industrial Relations Management

Sales and Advertising Management

Services Management

Production Management

Construction Operations Management

Farm Management

Transportation and Communication Operations

Organization and Methods Analysts

Personnel and Related Officers

Purchasing Officers and Buyers, except wholesale and retail trade

General Inspectors and Regulatory Officers


 

Professionalsİ

 

Accountants, Auditors and other Financial

Officers

Chemists

Geologists

Physicists

Meteorologists

Agriculturists and Related Scientists

Biologists and Related Scientists

Occupations in Life Sciences

Architects

Chemical Engineers

Civil Engineers

Electrical Engineers

Industrial Engineers

Agricultural Engineers

Mechanical Engineers

Metallurgical Engineers

Mining Engineers

Petroleum Engineers

Aerospace Engineers

Nuclear Engineers

Community College and Vocational School Teachers

Fine Arts Teachers

Post-Secondary School Teachers

Teachers of Exceptional Students

Other Teaching and Related Occupations

Physicians and Surgeons

Dentists

Veterinarians

Osteopaths and Chiropractors

Health Diagnosing and Treating Occupations

Supervisors: Nursing, Therapy and Other Assistants

Nurses, Registered, Graduate and Nurses-in-Training

Audio and Speech Therapists

Physiotherapists

Occupational Therapists

 

 

 

Community Planners

Professional Engineers

Mathematicians, Statisticians and Actuaries

Systems Analysts, Programmers and Related Occupations

Economists

Sociologists, Anthropologists, and Related Social Scientists

Psychologists

Occupations in Social Sciences

Social Workers

Occupations in Social Work and Related Fields

Judges and Magistrates

Lawyers and Notaries

Occupations in Law and Jurisprudence

Supervisory Occupations in Library, Museum and Archival Sciences

Librarians, Archivists and Conservators

Other Occupations in Library, Museum and Archival Sciences

Educational and Vocational Counsellors

Other Occupations in Social Sciences and Related Fields

Ministers of Religion

Nuns and Brothers

Other Occupations in Religion

University Teachers

University Teaching and Related Occupations

Elementary and Kindergarten Teachers

Secondary School Teachers

Elementary and Secondary School Teaching and Related Occupations

Pharmacists

Dietitians and Nutritionists

Optometrists

Translators and Interpreters

Commissioned Officers, Armed Forces

 

 

Foremen/Women

 

Supervisors: Apparel and Furnishings Service Occupations

Supervisors: Other Service Occupations

Foremen/Women: Farming, Horticultural and Animal Husbandry

Foremen/Women: Forestry and Logging Occupations

Foremen/Women: Mining, Quarrying, include. Oil and Gas Field Occupations

Foremen/Women: Mineral Ore Treating

Foremen/Women: Metal Processing and related occupations

Foremen/Women: Clay, Glass and Stone Processing, Forming, and related occupations

Foremen/Women: Chemicals, Petroleum, Rubber, Plastic and Related Materials Processing

Foremen/Women: Food and Beverage and related processing occupations

Wood Processing Occupations, except pulp and papermaking

Pulp and Papermaking and related occupations

Textile Processing occupations

Other Processing occupations

Metal Machining occupations

Metal Shaping and Forming occupations except machining

Wood Machining occupations

Clay, Glass, Stone and Related Materials Machining occupations

Other machining and related occupations

Fabricating and Assembling occupations: Metal Products

Fabricating, Assembling, Installing and Repairing occupations: Electrical, Electronic and related occupations

 

 

 

 

Foremen/Women: Fabricating, Assembling and Repairing occupations: Rubber, Plastic and related products

Foremen/Women: Mechanics and Repairers

Foremen/Women: Other Products Fabricating, Assembling and Repairing occupations

Foremen/Women: Excavating, Grading, Paving and related occupations

Foremen/Women: Electrical Power, Lighting and Wire Communications, Equipment Erecting, Installing and repairing occupations

Foremen/Women: Other Construction Trades occupations

Foremen/Women: All transport Operating occupations

Foremen/Women: Railway Transport Operating occupations

Foremen/Women: Motor Transport Operating occupations

Foremen/Women: Other Transport Equipment Operating occupations

Foremen/Women: Material Handling and related occupations

Foremen/Women: Printing and related occupations

Foremen/Women: Stationary Engine and Utilities Equipment Operating and related Occupations

Foremen/Women: Electronic and Related Communications Equipment Operating Occupations

Foremen/Women: Other Crafts and Equipment Operating Occupations

Fabricating, Assembling and Repairing occupations: Wood Products

Fabricating, Assembling, Repairing occupations: Textile, Fur and Leather Products


 

Skilled Crafts and Trades

 

Fire Fighting Occupations

Livestock and Crop Farmers

Captains and other Officers, Fishing Vessels

Log Inspecting, Grading, Scaling and Related Occupations

Tool and Die Making Occupations

Machinist and Machine Tool Setting-Up Occupations

Inspecting, Testing, Grading and Sampling Occupations (Metal Machining)

Sheet Metal Workers

Boilermakers, Platers, and Structural Metal Workers

Wood Patterning Occupations

Patternmakers and Mouldmakers

Other Machining and related Occupations

Aircraft Fabricating and Assembling Occupations

Electrical and related Equipment Installing and Repairing Occupations

Electronic and related Equipment Installing and Repairing Occupations

Radio and Television Repairers

Tailors and Dressmaking

Furriers

Aircraft Mechanics and Repairers

Rail Transport Equipment Mechanics and Repairers

Industrial, Farm and Construction Machinery Mechanics and Repairers

Business and Commercial Machine Mechanics and Repairers

Inspecting, Testing, Grading and Sampling Occupations: Equipment Repair

Watch and Clock Repairers

Electrical Power Line Workers and related Occupations

 

 

 

 

Inspecting, Testing, Grading and Sampling Occupations: Electrical Power, Lighting and Wire Communications Equipment Erecting, Installing and Repairing

Electrical Power, Lighting and Wire Communications, Equipment Erecting Installing and Repairing Occupations

Carpenters and related Occupations

Brick and Stone Masons and Tile Setters

Pipefitting, Plumbing and related Occupations

Glaziers

Inspecting, Testing, Grading and Sampling Occupations: Other Construction Trades

Air Transport Operating Support Occupations

Locomotive Operating Occupations

Deck Officers

Engineering Officers: Ship

Typesetting and Composing Occupations

Printing Press Occupations

Stereotyping and Electrotyping Occupations

Printing Engraving Occupations

Power Station Operators

Stationary Engine and Utilities Equipment Operating and related Occupations

Telegraph Operators

Sound and Video Recording and Reproduction Equipment Operators

Motion Picture Projectionists

Other Electronic and Related Communications Equipment Operating Occupations

Other Crafts and Equipment Operating Occupations

Construction Electricians and Repairers

Wire Communications and Related Equipment Installing and Repairing Occupations

 

 

    

Semi-Skilled Manual Workers

 

Livestock and Crop Farm Workers

Inspecting, Testing, Grading and Sampling Occupations: Other Farming, Horticultural and Animal Husbandry

Farm Machinery Operators

Trapping and related Occupations

Forestry Conservation Occupations

Rotary Well-drilling and related Occupations

Blasting Occupations

Mining and Quarrying: Cutting, Handling and Loading Occupations

Mining and Quarrying include. Oil and Gas Field Occupations

Melting and Roasting Occupations: Mineral Ores

Inspecting, Testing, Grading and Sampling Occupations: Mineral Ore Treating

Metal Smelting, Converting and refining Occupations

Metal Rolling Occupations

Inspecting, Testing and Grading: Metal Processing

Forming Occupations: Clay, Glass and Stone

Inspecting, Testing, Grading and Sampling Occupations: Clay, Glass and Stone Processing and Forming

Distilling, Subliming and Carbonizing Occupations: Chemicals and related Occupations

Inspecting, Testing, Grading and Sampling Occupations: Chemical, Petroleum, Rubber, Plastic and related materials processing

Wood Treating Occupations

Cellulose Pulp Preparing Occupations

Inspecting, Testing, Grading and Sampling Occupations: Pulp and Papermaking

Textile Weaving Occupations

Knitting Occupations

Metal Machining Occupations

Forging Occupations

Welding and Flame Cutting Occupations

Inspecting, Testing, Grading and Sampling Occupations: Metal Shaping and Forming, except Machining

Structural Metal Erectors

Air Transport Operating Occupations

Railway: Conductors and Brake Workers

Railway Transport Operating Support Occupations

Deck Crew: Ship

Engine and Boiler Room Crew: Ship

Photographic Processing Occupations

Bookbinding and related Occupations

 

 

İ

 

 

 

 

Metal Shaping and Forming Occupations, except Machining

Inspection, Testing, Grading and Sampling Occupations: Wood Machining

Abrading and Polishing Occupations: Clay, Glass, Stone and related Materials

Clay, Glass, Stone and related Materials Machining Occupations

Engravers, Etchers and related Occupations

Inspecting, Testing, Grading and Sampling Occupations: Other Machining and related Occupations

Industrial, Farm, Construction and other Mechanized Equipment and Machinery Fabricating Occupations

Business and Commercial Machines Fabricating and Assembling Occupations

Inspecting, Testing, Grading and Sampling Occupations: Fabricating and Assembling Metal Products

Inspecting, Testing, Grading and Sampling Occupations: Fabricating, Assembling, Installing and Repairing Electrical and Electronic and related Equipment

Occupations in Labouring and other Elemental Work: Fabricating, Assembling, Installing and Repairing Electrical, Electronic and related Equipment

Inspecting, Testing, Grading and Sampling Occupations: Fabricating, Assembling and Repairing Wood Products

Motor Vehicle Mechanics and Repairers

Other Mechanics and Repairers

Jewellery and Silverware Fabricating, Assembling, Repairing Occupations

Marine Craft Fabricating, Assembling and Repairing Occupations

Plasterers and related Occupations

Concrete Finishing Occupations

Insulating Occupations

Roofing, Waterproofing and related Occupations

Water Transport Operating Occupations

Bus Drivers

Taxi Drivers and Chauffeurs

Truck Drivers

Motor Transport Operating Occupations

Subway and Street Railway Operating Occupations

Hoisting Occupations

 

 

 


 

Appendix b: DATA COLLECTION FORMS

 

 


LEEP Data Collection Form

 

Time frame: Employers who have been under the legislation since 1992, 1993 and/or 1994.

 

 

Name of Employer: _____________________________Date: __________________

 

Address: __________________________________Phone/Fax: _____________

 

1. Year the employer came under the legislation: _______

 

2. Industry sector in which they operate: _________________________________

 

3. Total number of employees:İ Female: _______ Male: _______

 

4. Number of women and men employed in trades, technologies, operations and engineering occupations;

 

 

Total Females Total Males Unionized FemalesUnionized Males

Trades: ________ ________ _________ ________

Technologies: ________ ________ _________ ________

Operations: ________ ________ _________ ________

Engineering: ________________________ ________

Technical Supervisory: ________ _________________ ________

 

TOTALS:İ________ _________________ ________

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


FCP Data Collection Form

 

 

 

Time frame: employers who have been signatories since 1992, 1993 and/or 1994.

 

Name of Employer: _____________________________Date: __________________

 

Address: __________________________________Phone/Fax: _____________

 

1. Year the employer became a signatory to the FCP: _______

 

2. Industry sector in which they operate: _________________________________

 

3. Total number of employees:İ Female:İ _______İİ Male: ______

 

4. Number of women and men employed in trades, technologies, operations and engineering occupations;

 

 

Total FemalesTotal Males Unionized FemalesUnionized Males

Trades: ________ _________________ ________

Technologies: _________________________ ________

Operations: _______ ________ ________ ________

Engineering: ________ _________________________

Technical Supervisory________ ________ _________ ________

 

TOTALS: ________ ________ _________ ________

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Federal Infrastructure Data Collection Form

 

 

Number of projects funded under the Federal Infrastructure program in your province during 1996: __________

 

***********************

The following request is for project-specific information:

 

Name of Project: ______________________________Time frame: ____________

 

Name of Employer: _____________________________ Date: __________________

 

Address: _____________________________Phone/Fax: ___________________

 

 

1. Dates of operation: __________Start date: ____________

Completion Date: _______Currently Operating: Yes ___İ No ____

 

2. Federal contribution to project: $ _________

Amount in federal $$ spent on project-specific training (if any): $ ________.

 

3.Industry sectors in which the project exists: _______________________________

 

4. Total number of employees during peak operation: __________________

Full-time (permanent and temporary): __________________

Part-time: __________ Other: ____________

 

5. Number of women and men employed in trades, technologies, operations and engineering occupations on the project;

 

İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ Total Femalesİİİİİİ Total Malesİİİİİİİİİİ Unionized Femalesİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ Unionized Males

Trades: İ İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ İ________İİİİİİİİİİİ ________İİİİİİİİİİİ _________İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ ________İİİİİİİİİİİİ

Technologies: İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ İ________İİİİİİİİİİİ ________İİİİİİİİİİİ _________İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ ________İİİİİİİİİİİİ

Operations:İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ ________İİİİİİİİİİİ ________İİİİİİİİİİİ _________İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ ________İİİİİİİİİİİİ

Engineering:İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ ________İİİİİİİİİİİ ________İİİİİİİİİİİ _________İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ ________İİİİİİİİİİİİ

Technical Supervisory:İİİ ________İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ ________İİİİİİİİİİİ _________İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ ________İİİİİİİİİİİİ

 

TOTALS: İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ İ________İİİİİİİİİİİ ________İİİİİİİİİİİ _________İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ ________İİİİİİİİİİİİ
Mega-Projects Data Collection Form

 

Name of Project: ______________________________İİİİİİİİİİ Time frame:_____________

 

Name of Employer: _____________________________İİİİİİİİ Date: __________________

 

Address: _____________________________İİİİİİİİİİ Phone/Fax: ___________________

 

1. Dates of operation: __________İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ Federal contribution to project: $ _________

Start date: ____________İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ Amount in federal $$ spent on project-

Completion Date: _______İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ specific training: $ ________.

Currently Operating: Yes ___İ No ____

 

2. Industry sectors in which the project exists: _________________________________

 

3. Total number of employees during peak operation: _____________________________

İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ Full-time (permanent and temporary): __________________

İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ Part-time: ___________İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ Other: ____________

 

4. Number of women and men employed in trades, technologies, operations and engineering occupations;

 

İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ Total Femalesİİİİİİ Total Malesİİİİİİİİİİ Unionized Femalesİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ Unionized Males

Trades: İ İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ İ________İİİİİİİİİİİ ________İİİİİİİİİİİ _________İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ ________İİİİİİİİİİİİ

Technologies: İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ İ________İİİİİİİİİİİ ________İİİİİİİİİİİ _________İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ ________İİİİİİİİİİİİ

Operations:İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ ________İİİİİİİİİİİ ________İİİİİİİİİİİ _________İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ ________İİİİİİİİİİİİ

Engineering:İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ ________İİİİİİİİİİİ ________İİİİİİİİİİİ _________İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ ________İİİİİİİİİİİİ

Technical Supervisory:İİİ ________İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ ________İİİİİİİİİİİ _________İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ ________İİİİİİİİİİİİ

TOTALS: İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ İ________İİİİİİİİİİİ ________İİİİİİİİİİİ _________İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ ________İİİİİİİİİİİİ

 

5. Total # of women from: İ PEI _____ ; Nova Scotia ______ ; New Brunswick ______, İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ NFLD and Labrador _______.

 

6. Number of women and men who received project-specific training:

Trades:İ İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ Females ________İİİİİİİİİİİİİ Males ________

Operations:İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ Females _________İİİİİİİİİİİ Males ________

Support:İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ Females _________İİİİİİİİİİİ Males ________

Administrative:İİİİ Females _________İİİİİİİİİİİ Males _________İİİİİİİİİİİİİİ

Professional: İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ Femalesİ _________İİİİİİİİİİ Males ________


Educational Data Collection Form

 

Time frame: 1991- 96

 

 

1.İ İİİİİİİİİİ Name of Educational Institution: _____________________________________

 

İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ Location: _____________________________İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ Year: ____________

İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ

İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ Type of Institution:İ Community College ____ ;İ Private ____İ ;İ Other _____.İ

 

 

2. Number of women who graduated from programs in trades, technologies, operations and engineering occupations at colleges and universities:

Trades (excl. hairdressing and cooking):İİİİİİİİ # of Females _____İİ Active Apprentices _____

İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ Journeypersons ______

2 Year Technician: İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ # of Femalesİ ________İİİİ

2 Year Technologies: İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ # of Femalesİ ________İİİİ

3 Year Technologies: İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ # of Femalesİ ________İİİİ

Operations:İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ # of Females _________İİİ

Engineering:İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ # of Females _________İİİ


 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix C: Focus Group Agenda

 

 


 

Introduction:

Personal introductions

Overview of the research project

Explanation of Format (role of facilitator and taping of workshop)

Explanation of Confidentiality guidelines (no individuals or employers will be İİİİİİ identified in the report)

Distribute demographics questionnaire and have participants complete it.

 

Part 1:

 

Question #1: Describe your experience in accessing work in TTO/engineering occupations?

 

Question #2: What do you think are the main barriers that women face accessing equitable levels of employment and training in TTO/ engineering work?

 

Question #3: What are some of the positive steps that need to be taken to ensure more equitable levels of employment for qualified women in TTO/engineering occupations?

 

Part II:

Present a brief overview of WITT NN and the provincial WITT organization.

 

Distribute questionnaire

 

Concluding remarks and wrap-up


 



ENDNOTES

 

[1] Women In Trades and Technology (WITT) is an education and advocacy organization that promotes and assists in the recruitment, training and retention of women in trades, technology, operations and blue-collar work (TTO/BCW).İ The WITT National Network is a communications and support network for women and groups working locally, provincially and regionally.

İ

[2] Canada, Human Resources Development Canada Employment Equity Act İ( Ottawa: Minister of Supply and Services Canada, 1986) Section 2.

 

[3] Although the designated groups include female and male aboriginal people, people with disabilities and visible minorities, the figures in this report reflect the participation of all women from all the designated groups.İİ However, as the section entitled ëWomen in Other Designated Groupsí illustrates,İ the representation of women in the other designated groups remains extremely low.

 

[4] Grzetic, Shrimpton and Skipton, Women, Employment Equity and the Hibernia Construction Project: a study of women's experiences on the Hibernia construction project, Mosquito Cove, NFİ (St. Johnís: WITT NF and Labrador, 1996).

 

[5] Employment Equity Act, 1986, Section 4.

 

[6] Canada, Human Resources Development Canadaİ Employment Equity: A Guide for Employers (Ottawa: Ministry of Supply and Services, 1991) 9.

 

[7] Employment Equity: A Guide for Employers, 10.

 

[8] Grzetic, Shrimpton and Skipton, 1996, 5.

 

[9] The federal government subsequently also became a direct partner in the project, taking on an 8.5% share following the February 1992 withdrawal of Gulf Canada Resources from the Hibernia consortium.

 

[10] Department of Employment and Labour Relations, Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, July, 1995.

 

[11] Canada: Human Resources Development Canada, Annual Report - Employment Equity Act, 1997 (Ottawa: Minister of Supply and Services, 1997) 4.

İ

[12] Canada: Statistics Canada, Census /96: Statistics Canada Excerpts from The Daily - Cat. No. 11-001E (Ottawa, Minister of Supply and Services, 1998) 4.

 

[13] Marcia Braundy, ed., Orientation to Trades and Technology: A Curriculum Gruide and Resource Book with Special Emphasis on the Needs of Womenİ (British Columbia: Ministry of Skills Development and Training, Province of British Columbia, 1997).İ

 

[14]İ Canada: Human Resources Development Canada: Employment Equity Branch, Data Development and Systems Analysis (Ottawa: Minister of Supply and Services, 1991) 13-23.